by Julian Smart, February 2003
The requirement for accessibility
Increasingly, vendors and public organisations are required to ensure that their
software conforms to Section 508
of the Rehabilitation Act (USA). This means that disabled users (for example,
blind or partially sighted users) should be able to use the software. Of course,
this is a good goal for wxWidgets and its users, even without the legislation.
On Microsoft Windows, this essentially means support for the Active Accessibility
API (MSAA). Although a framework cannot do everything that is needed for an
application to be AA conformant, it can provide the extra support
to make this task relatively straightforward.
An interesting potential additional benefit of providing accessibility support is the ability
to use the API for automation of wxWidgets applications.
I am starting to add AA features to wxWidgets (in CVS head, 2.5.x series).
The rest of this document details the approach, progress made, and what has
to be done to complete it.
I am being funded to start the AA support by Dartmouth Medical School.
However I will need input from others to solve implementation problems.
So if you're interested in this aspect, please join in!
You can discuss it on the wx-dev mailing list, submit patches via SourceForge,
add comments to the wxWidgets Wiki, or mail me.
Approach and design
I have taken a simple overall approach, which has been taken by other
frameworks and applications (for example Mozilla and Qt). This is to
base support around MSAA, and assume that support on other platforms
will be fairly similar. Abstracting and broadening the API (if necessary)
can come later once we have demonstrated the feasibility on Windows, which
is the most urgent platform.
Since I am working on Windows 2000, I am addressing MSAA version 1.3.
We can extend it to version 2.0 later, which means supporting dynamic
annotation and text services. MSAA 2.0 can only be used on XP, Windows 98,
and Windows NT 4.
The main new class of interest is wxAccessible, which is the
platform-independent equivalent of MSAA's IAccessible. wxAccessible
for each platform derives from wxAccessibleBase, which contains
virtual functions such as GetChild, GetChildCount, Navigate which
the framework will call and convert to data that
the underlying system (such as MSAA on WIN32) can process.
There will eventually be a wxAccessible-derived class for every
wxWidgets window class or group of window classes, and an application
writing a custom window should provide their own wxAccessible-derived
wxWindowBase now has a virtual function called CreateAccessible
which each window can override to create a new wxAccessible-derived
object. GetOrCreateAccessible gets or creates an accessible,
and you can call SetAccessible to set the accessible for
a window, though this is normally done automatically if you pass
a wxWindow argument to the wxAccessible constructor.
When MSAA requires an accessible object, a WM_GETOBJECT message
is sent to the window, and wxWidgets handles this by
passing the wxAccessible object associated with the window (creating
one if necessary).
For functions that the wxWidgets application declines to implement,
and if the object represents a standard WIN32 control, the behaviour
is handled instead by a standard IAccessible object obtained using
These are the relevant source files:
include/wx/access.h ; The accessibility classes and definitions
include/wx/window.h ; Declares wxWindowAccessible
include/wx/msw/ole/access.h ; wxAccessible declaration
src/common/accesscmn.cpp ; Currently empty
src/common/wincmn.cpp ; Implementation of wxWindowAccessible
src/msw/window.cpp ; WM_GETOBJECT implementation
src/msw/access.cpp ; Implements IAccessible, wxAccessible etc.
samples/access ; A sample to demonstrate accessibility support
Compiling wxWidgets for accessibility
To compile wxWidgets with accessibility support, set wxUSE_ACCESSIBILITY
to 1 in wx/msw/setup.h. Only VC++ 6 has been tested so far. For
samples other than 'access', you will need to add oleacc.lib to your
project file to avoid link errors. Also, I found I had to add !defined(_MSC_VER)
to the test involving __WXDEBUG__ and __MINGW32__ at the top of
include/wx/datetime.h, and also make sure the line:
const long wxDateTime::TIME_T_FACTOR = 1000l;
compiled, otherwise I got wxDateTime-related link errors.
This issue needs to be resolved.
If you need to temporarily disable accessibility for a wxWidgets
app, simply comment out the code that handles WM_GETOBJECT
in window.cpp and recompile this file. This will make MSAA
handle accessibility for all windows itself.
The directory samples/access contains a simple accessibility sample,
AccessTest, that creates a splitter window and two controls (a listbox and
a text control). A menu item 'Query' uses client-side
accessibility code to query the accessibility hierarchy.
You can use tools from the MSAA development kit to look
at the accessibility hierarchy. Unfortunately, they produce
rather different results. Accessible Explorer fails to
find the splitter window child of the frame's client area
when you show the hierarchy starting from the frame.
However, when you select the controls in AccessTest, it shows
information about them; but it fails to navigate up the hierarchy
properly when you click on 'Go to parent'.
On the other hand, using the Active Accessibility Object Inspector,
you can navigate to the splitter window from the frame's client,
and from there to the child controls. Similar, the MSAAVeri
application shows the full tree, and the Narrator
application (Programs/Accessories/Accessibility/Narrator) also seems
to work fine.
The following images show problems with the
current implementation that will need to be resolved.
Above, Accessible Explorer exploring AccessTest compiled without
accessibility features. Note how the full hierarchy is shown.
Above, Accessible Explorer exploring AccessTest compiled with
accessibility features. Note how the splitter window and
windows under it are not found.
Above, AccessTest showing that it can traverse its own accessibility
information using client-side code.
Problems to be solved
The most pressing problem is how to get Accessible Explorer
to recognise the hierarchy. Is it expecting our objects
to enumerate their children? Supporting IEnumVARIANT is not
essential, according to the guidelines, and there are
at least two other ways to get child information
(get_accChild and accNavigate).
If source for Accessible Explorer is available, it
would help us know what it's expecting to find. Unfortunately
only the source for Inspector seems to be provided,
and that has less trouble with our implementation.
A fundamental question I have about AA is the relationship
between windows and clients. If you explore, say, the version
of AccessTest without explicit accessibility support, you
find that some windows have a single child, 'client'.
Are we supposed to model this relationship explicitly?
In which case, our GetParent/GetChild assumptions are wrong, since they
return wxAccessible objects which represents a whole window,
not the window/client parts separately. Should a window's
role always be 'client', or 'window'?
All help with this will be very gratefully received!
We need to support events (so accessible objects can
notify clients when a state has changed).
We need to write appropriate wxAccessible classes for wxWidgets
windows that are not already supported by MSAA. For example,
the splitter window should allow the sash to be accessible, as
well as its one or two visible children.
We need to document the API and write a topic overview.
We should also look at supporting AA 2.0 features, and investigate
GTK+/Gnome and Mac accessibility.
We can perhaps provide a generic client/server implementation
of accessibility for platforms that don't support a standard:
for example we can have a TCP/IP server responding to client
requests to access the wxAccessible hierarchy.
See also the samples in the MSAA SDK (all client code unfortunately), and the IAccessible
documentation in VC++. There is very little extra information about AA on the web
or newsgroups as far as I can see.
Some observations gleaned from the web:
"Active Accessibility weirdness note: You will probably want to
use AccessibleChildren() instead of get_accChildCount() and
get_accChild(). AccessibleChildren probably calls those and then
improves the results. But, AccessibleChildren frequently returns
fewer children than get_accChildCount says it should.
Active Accessibility weirdness note: Some objects report 1 child
with AccessibleChildren, yet accNavigate reveals more children."